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Ecology and Ecosystem- Population Ecology
Population Ecology

Population ecology is an important area of ecology because it links ecology to population genetics and evolution. A population has certain attributes that an i More..

Biodiversity - Threats to Biodiversity/Biodiversity Conservation
Threats to Biodiversity

Threat to biodiversity stems mainly from: habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss; shrinking genetic diversity; invasive alien species; declining fore More..

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats

The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Sche More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Adaptation/Interaction between Species
Adaptation/Interaction between Species


An adaptation is “the appearance or behaviour or structure or mode of lif More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Ecology and its Principles/Ecological Succession
Ecology and its Principles

Ecology is defined as a scientific study of the interaction of living organisms with each other and with their environment. It deals with the ways in w More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Terrestrial Ecosystem/Aquatic Ecosystem
Terrestrial Ecosystem

terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on landforms. Six primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taig More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Ecotone/Energy Flow
Ecotone: Ecology and Ecosystem

Ecotone, a transitional area of vegetation between two different plant communities, such as forest and grassland. It has some of the characteristic More..

Ecology and Ecosystem - Ecosystem and its components/Ecosystem Functions/Ecological Pyramids
Ecosystem and its components

An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and physical environment, both inte More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Land Degradation/Soil Erosion/Deforestation
Land Degradation

Land degradation is the process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil. The causes of land degradation can be divided into natural hazards, direct More..

Climate Change - Conventions Related to Climate Change Management
Conventions Related to Climate Change Management

The Convention on Climate Change sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge More..

Biogeochemical cycles - Nitrogen Cycle/Sulphur Cycle /Hydrological Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is an essential component of protein and required by all living organisms including human beings. Nitrogen is needed for our DNA, RNA and proteins an More..

Bonn Climate Change Conference

The 23rd meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP-23) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in November 2017 at Bonn in Germany.

Ecology, Biome, Ecotone, Niche, Ecosystem, Biosphere

Ecology may be defined as the scientific study of the relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment. The emphasis is on relationshi More..

Ecological Succession, Food Chain, Food Web, Ecological pyramids
Ecological Succession

Primary succession

Primary succession is one of two types of biological and ecological succession of pla More..

‘Beast from The East’ – the science behind Europe’s Siberian chill

The so-called “Beast from the East” has arrived in the UK, bringing unusually cold weather – about 7°C colder than the historical average for this time of year. Wind chill is mak More..

Reducing the carbon footprint
  • With hot summers, warm winters, increasing diseases, famines and droughts, and violent acts of nature, we can see how climate change is affecting our daily lives. India, which aims More..

Biogeochemical cycles - Carbon Cycle/Oxygen Cycle/Phosphorus Cycle
Carbon Cycle

This cycle contains any of the natural pathways by which essential elements of living matter are circulated. Biogeochemical cycles are named for the cycling of biolo More..

Biodiversity - International Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation
International Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation

Conserving biodiversity is not an issue confined to any one country or community. It is a crucial global concern. Several i More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Surface and Groundwater Degradation
Surface and Groundwater Degradation

India consists 1/25th of world’s water resources. The total utilizable water resources of the country are assessed as 1086 km3. A brief descri More..

Environmental Governance - Environmental Institutions/Environmental Legislations
Environmental Institutions


1. Ministry of Environment & Forests:

• The Ministry of Environment &a More..

Biodiversity - Types of Species/Extinction of Species/IUCN Red List
Types of Species

The species according to their role are divided as:

• Dominant species
These are species with substantially higher abundan More..

Climate Change - Basics of Climate Change
Basics of Climate Change

‘Climate change’ as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the More..

Biodiversity - Biodiversity Types/Functions of Biodiversity
Biodiversity Types

The word “biodiversity” is an abbreviated version of “biological diversity”.

The Convention on Biological Diversity d More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Solid Waste Management/E-waste Management/Treatment Methods for Waste Management
Solid Waste Management

India has emerged as the world’s fifth largest electronic waste (e-waste) producer. India discards roughly 18.5 lakh tonnes of e-waste each year and teleco More..

Biodiversity - Estuaries/Mangroves/Coral Polyps

Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water along coastlines where fresh water and salt water meet and mix. They act as a transition zone between oceans and contin More..

Brundtland Report & Capacity-Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) Fund
Brundtland Report
Formally called:  Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development
< More..

Environmental Governance - Steps for Environmental Conservation
Steps for Environmental Conservation

In This Section, we will discuss schemes related to Forestation, Schemes for wetland and coastal Ecosystem , schemes for water conservation More..

Stubble burning
Stubble burning

Stubble burning refers to the use of a controlled fire to clear the crop residue that remains in the paddock after harvest and could more accurately be called ‘cro More..

Vermin Animals
Vermin are pests or nuisance animals that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock.

Disease-carrying rodents and insects are the usual case, but the term is also applied to larger animals—especially small predators—typically beca More..

Treaties and Agreements
Treaties and Agreements

1971: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance ("Ramsar Convention")

1972: Stockholm Declaration

1973: Convention on International Trade in Endangered species More..

Agenda 21 & Basel Convention
Agenda 21
1. Non-binding
2. Voluntary

  • It is an action plan of United Nations
  • Related with sustainable development
  • It More..