Send Your Query





Constitutional Framework
  1. Regulating Act 1773
    • beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Company
    • subo More..

Indian Economy (UPSC Prelims Special)- Schemes / Government Initiatives
1. Tejaswini Project 
  • “Tejaswini” - Socio-Economic Empowerment of Adolescent Girls and Young Women Project”.
  • Market-driven s More..

Indian Economy (UPSC 2017 Prelims Special)- Monetary and Fiscal Policy
1. Google tax / Equalisation Levy
  • It will apply to payments for online advertisements made by Indian business entities to non-residents (such as Google, Yahoo, Twitter, Facebook More..

Prelims 2017 Current Affairs- Geographical News

1. Majuli Island
Geographical Location :The Majuli Island is formed by the Brahmaputra river system. It is the wor More..

History : Practice Quiz 1 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: Prehistory

The main Characteristic of the Indus Valley Civilization was
(a) Pucca houses
(b) Drainage system
(c) Town Planning
(d) Well laid out roads

History : Practice Quiz 2 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: Religion and Philosophy

The first dicourcse of Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath is called

(a) Mahabhiniskraman
(b) Mahamastabhisheka
(c) Mahaparinirvana
(d) Dha More..

History : Practice Quiz 3 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: Religious Movement

History : Practice Quiz 10 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 9

Mahatma Gandhi gave the call to reject foreign goods during the
(a) Civil Disobedience Movement
(b) Non Cooperation Movement
(c) Khilafat Movement
(d) Swadeshi Moveme More..

Indian Art & Culture - Tribes

  • They are the most populous tribe of Arunachal Pradesh numbe More..

The Great Indian History Chronology: Journey from Ancient India to Modern India
The Great Indian History Chronology:
Indian History is a topic of interest to many including foreigners because of the cultures and civilizations existed in this sub-con More..

History : Practice Quiz 5 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: Vedic Age

The institution of Varna appeared in the
(a) Later Vedic period
(b) Period of the consolidation of the text of the Mahabharat.
(c) Period of the Manava More..

History : Practice Quiz 6 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: World History

Renaissance started first in
(a) Russia
(b) England
(c) France
(d) Italy
Answer: Italy

History : Practice Quiz 9 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: Political History- Ancient Period

What was the rate of land revenue as given in the dharma shastras?

(a) 4-Jan
(b) 8-Jan
(c) 6-Jan
(d) 3-Jan

Geography - Geomorphology - Earth Movements – Endogenetic Movements
Earth Movements

Our earth is undergoing deformations imperceptibly [so slight, gradual, or subtle as not to be perceived] but continuously.

These deformations are c More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Continental Drift Theory – Tectonics
Continental Drift Theory – Tectonics

Tectonics == Large scale movement of lithospheric plates.

During WW More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Continent – Ocean Convergence
In this post we will study about Continent – Ocean Convergence. Understanding Continent – Ocean Convergence is important to understand the Formation of The Rockies, the Formation of the Andes and other similar fold mountain systems.

We More..

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in south Asia,  which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated More..

Ancient India - Important Indus Valley Sites and Archaeological Discoveries

The Indus Valley Civilization covered parts of Sind, Baluchistan, Afganistan, West Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Maharashtra. Over 1000 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discove More..

History : Practice Quiz 11 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 8

The post and telegraph system in India was introduced during the time of
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Canning
(c) Lord Hardinage

Geography - Geomorphology - Continent – Continent Convergence
In this post we will study about Continent – Continent Convergence. Understanding Continent – Continent Convergence is important to understand the Formation of the Himalayas, the Alps, the Urals and the Atlas mountains.

We have studied More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes
Government Schemes

Central sector schemes and Centrally Sponsored Scheme

Central sector schemes are 100% funded by the Union More..

Indian Economy - Important Schemes, Programs & Organisations - Finance Sector
Finance Sector

BHIM Aadhaar – Aadhar Payment App for Merchants

In a bid to promote Aadhaar-based payment system, Modi government has launched a new Android app for More..



Why in News?

INTACH (Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Earth’s Interior – Earthquake Waves – Shadow Zone

The configuration of the surface of the earth is largely a product of the processes operating in the interior of the earth.

Exogenic as well as endogenic proc More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Weathering – Exogenetic Earth Movements
Exogenetic Movements

Exogenic (Exogenetic) processes are a direct result of stress induced in earth materials due to various forces that come into existence due to sun’s heat.

Geography - Geomorphology - Plate Tectonics – Indian Plate Movement
Plate Tectonics

n 1967, McKenzie and Parker suggested the theory of plate tectonics. The theory was later outlined by Morgan in 1968.

By then, the ‘continental drif More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Population Ecology
Population Ecology

Population ecology is an important area of ecology because it links ecology to population genetics and evolution. A population has certain attributes that an i More..

Indian Polity - Introduction
Indian Polity - Introduction
  • The constitution of a country is a document that comprises a set of written rules accepted by everyone living together in that country.
  • More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - II
Government Schemes

Central sector schemes and Centrally Sponsored Scheme

2. Ministry of Chemicals and More..

History : Practice Quiz 7 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: Cultural History- Art, Architecture and Music

Who built the stupa at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh ?
(a) Kanishka
(b) Chandragupta
(c) Ashoka
(d) Harsha

Space - Recent and Future Space Missions
Recent and Future Space Missions


1. Launch vehicles – Seven successful launch vehicle missions an More..

Understanding the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA)
Why in News?
  • Recently, AFSPA has been extended for six months in Nagaland.
  • The Centre is considering partial removal of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • More..

Indian Polity - Constitution Formation

 Indian Polity - Constitution Formation

Historical Background

  • In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight oth More..

Geography India - National Forest


  • According to the India State of Forest Report 2011, the actual forest cover in India is 21.05%, of which, 12.29% are dense forests and 8.75% are open forests.
  • More..

Government Institutions Related to Art and Culture
Lalit Kala Akademi

To promote and propagate understanding of Indian art, both within and outside the country, the Lalit Kala Akademi was established in 1954 at New Delhi for pursuance of the dream of the first Prime Mi More..

Indian Polity - Constitutional Features

Indian Polity - Constitutional Features

Key Features of Indian Constitution

  • Following are the important feat More..

History : Practice Quiz 12 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 7

Who among the following, analysed the cause of uprising of 1857 advocating a reconcilation between the British and the Muslims ?
(a) Syed Ahmed Khan

Indian Art & Culture - Dances- Classical Dances


Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical thea More..

Indian Art & Culture - Dances- Folk and Tribal Dances

  • Gotipua, a traditional dance form of Odissi folk in praise of Lord Jaga More..

Modern History: The government of India Act 1919

The government of India Act 1919

Secretary of state, Edwin S.Montagu and the viceroy of India More..

Ancient History : The Buddhist Councils
First Buddhist Council


The First Council, as it is known to Buddhist history, took place at Rajgir, the capital of the Magadha kingdom. The Buddha's most important disciples were as More..

Basic Quiz (Indian Freedom Struggle)
1. Indian National Congress formed in 1885 during the Governor –General ship of?
Lord Dufferin

2. First Woman president of Indian National Congress?
Annie Besant (1917)

3. Wh More..

Geography - Geomorphology - See Floor Spreading – Paleomagnetism
Convectional Current Theory – Tectonics

Arthur Holmes in 1930s discussed the possibility of convection currents in the mantle.

 These currents are generated du More..

Geography India - Natural Vegetation
Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long period of time.

Classification of Vegetation

Based on climatic conditions, forests are div More..

Geography India - Wildlife

India is one of the 12th mega bio-diversity countries of the world.

With approximately 47,000 plant species, India ranks 4th in Asia and 10th in the world (in terms of More..

Geography India - Soil

Soil is very important and a valuable resource for every human being.

Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials, which develop on the earth’s surface. More..

Indian Art & Culture - Paintings

  1. The thangka is a traditional Tibetan form of religious art originating in India whose subj More..

Geography India - Introduction
Geography India - Introduction

India - Location

India is located entirely in the northern hemisphere; specifically in the south-central part of the continent of Asia.


Geography India - Physical Aspect
Geography India - Physical Aspect

India - Evolution

As per the estimation, the earth is approximately 460 million years old.

The endogenic and exogenic forces played a significant role in giving shape to v More..

Geography India - Drainage System
Geography India - Drainage System


The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is known as drainage system.

The drainage pattern of an More..

History : Practice Quiz 13 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 6

Be proud that you are an Indian, proudly claim I am an Indian, every Indian is my brother? who had said these words ?
(a) Vivekananda
(b) Maha More..

History : Practice Quiz 14 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)
History: National Movement 5

The Muslim League demanded a separate nation for the Muslim in India from the year
(a) 1920
(b) 1940
(c) 1945
(d) 1930

History : Practice Quiz 15 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 4

Which of the following was an empire Communist journal of M.N. Roy ?
(a) Kishan Sabha
(b) The Worker
(c) Vanguard
(d) Anushila More..

History : Practice Quiz 16 For Civil Service Examinations 2018 (UPSC Prelims 2018)

History: National Movement 3

The British Governor General, who formulated the policy of Subsidiary Alliance with regard to Indian powers was
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Wi More..

Indian Art & Culture - Sculpture and Architecture

  • Australia returned three ancient sculptures t More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Earth’s Layers – Earth’s Composition
Earth’s Layers

Earth’s layers are identified by studying various direct and indirect sources [we studied this in previous post: Earth’s Interior – Earthquake Waves – Shadow Zone]. More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VII
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VII

Government Schemes - VII

7. Mini More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Ocean – Ocean Convergence
In this post we will study about Ocean – Ocean Convergence. Understanding Ocean – Ocean Convergence helps us in understanding the formation of Japanese Island Arc, formation of Indonesian Archipelago, formation of Philippine Island Arc and formation More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Types of Mountains – Classification of Mountains
In this post we will study about different Types of Mountains which are classified based on various factors.

This post will be helpful to answer location based questions.


Indian Economy - Government Schemes - IV
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - IV

Government Schemes - IV

4. Ministr More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VI
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VI

Government Schemes - VI

6. Minist More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VIII
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - VIII

Government Schemes - VIII

8. Mi More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - IX
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - IX

Government Schemes - IX

9. Ministry for development of North-Eastern region

9.1 North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP)

It is a central Sector sc More..

Biodiversity - Threats to Biodiversity/Biodiversity Conservation
Threats to Biodiversity

Threat to biodiversity stems mainly from: habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss; shrinking genetic diversity; invasive alien species; declining fore More..

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats

The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Sche More..

Indian Art & Culture - Music

  • Panchavadyam literally meaning an orchestra of five instruments, is a temple art form that has evo More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Adaptation/Interaction between Species
Adaptation/Interaction between Species


An adaptation is “the appearance or behaviour or structure or mode of lif More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Ecology and its Principles/Ecological Succession
Ecology and its Principles

Ecology is defined as a scientific study of the interaction of living organisms with each other and with their environment. It deals with the ways in w More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Terrestrial Ecosystem/Aquatic Ecosystem
Terrestrial Ecosystem

terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on landforms. Six primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taig More..

Ecology and Ecosystem- Ecotone/Energy Flow
Ecotone: Ecology and Ecosystem

Ecotone, a transitional area of vegetation between two different plant communities, such as forest and grassland. It has some of the characteristic More..

Ecology and Ecosystem - Ecosystem and its components/Ecosystem Functions/Ecological Pyramids
Ecosystem and its components

An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and physical environment, both inte More..

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - III
Government Schemes- III

Central sector schemes and Centrally Sponsored Scheme

Indian Economy - Government Schemes - V
Indian Economy - Government Schemes - V

Government Schemes - V

5. Ministry More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Land Degradation/Soil Erosion/Deforestation
Land Degradation

Land degradation is the process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil. The causes of land degradation can be divided into natural hazards, direct More..

Climate Change - Conventions Related to Climate Change Management
Conventions Related to Climate Change Management

The Convention on Climate Change sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Divergent Boundary – African Rift System
Interaction of Plates
  • Major geomorphological features such as fold mountains, block mountains, mid-oceanic ridges, trenches, volcanism, earthquakes et More..

Biogeochemical cycles - Nitrogen Cycle/Sulphur Cycle /Hydrological Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is an essential component of protein and required by all living organisms including human beings. Nitrogen is needed for our DNA, RNA and proteins an More..

Social Audit law
Social Audit law

Social audit is a process of reviewing official records and determining whether state reported expenditures reflect the actu More..

Bonn Climate Change Conference

The 23rd meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP-23) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in November 2017 at Bonn in Germany.

Land Ports Authority of India
Land Ports Authority of India

India has an over 15000 KM long international land border with Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, More..

Ice sheets
An ice sheet is a mass of glacial land ice extending more than 50,000 square kilometers (20,000 square miles). The two ice sheets on Earth today cover most of Greenland and Antarctica.

Ice sheets are constantly in motion, slowly flowi More..

Crop nutrition
Crop nutrition

Crops require a balanced diet of essential nutrients throughout their growth cycle. Yield and the quality of products from crops are strongly linked to the supply o More..

Ecology, Biome, Ecotone, Niche, Ecosystem, Biosphere

Ecology may be defined as the scientific study of the relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment. The emphasis is on relationshi More..

Ecological Succession, Food Chain, Food Web, Ecological pyramids
Ecological Succession

Primary succession

Primary succession is one of two types of biological and ecological succession of pla More..

Geography - Geomorphology - Fold Mountains – Block Mountains

In this post we will study about Fold Mountains and Block Mountains. For Classification of Mountains refer my previous post

  • Types of Mountains – Classification of Mountains


Geography - Geomorphology - Himalayas – Andes – Rockies – Urals – Drakensberg
Important mountain ranges
  • The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars ( More..

Voice over LTE
Voice over Long-Term Evolution (VoLTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem(IMS) network, with specific profiles for control and media plans of voice serv More..

Electoral bonds
Electoral Bond is a financial instrument for making donations to political parties.

These are issued by Scheduled Commercial banks upon authorization from the Central Government to intending donors, but only against cheque and digital More..

Long Term Capital Gains Tax
Any profit or gain that arises from the sale of a ‘capital asset’ is a capital gain. This gain or profit is charged to tax in the year in which the transfer of the capital asset takes place.

Capital gains are not applicable when an ass More..

‘Beast from The East’ – the science behind Europe’s Siberian chill

The so-called “Beast from the East” has arrived in the UK, bringing unusually cold weather – about 7°C colder than the historical average for this time of year. Wind chill is mak More..

Reducing the carbon footprint
  • With hot summers, warm winters, increasing diseases, famines and droughts, and violent acts of nature, we can see how climate change is affecting our daily lives. India, which aims More..

Biogeochemical cycles - Carbon Cycle/Oxygen Cycle/Phosphorus Cycle
Carbon Cycle

This cycle contains any of the natural pathways by which essential elements of living matter are circulated. Biogeochemical cycles are named for the cycling of biolo More..

Biodiversity - International Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation
International Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation

Conserving biodiversity is not an issue confined to any one country or community. It is a crucial global concern. Several i More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Surface and Groundwater Degradation
Surface and Groundwater Degradation

India consists 1/25th of world’s water resources. The total utilizable water resources of the country are assessed as 1086 km3. A brief descri More..

Environmental Governance - Environmental Institutions/Environmental Legislations
Environmental Institutions


1. Ministry of Environment & Forests:

• The Ministry of Environment &a More..

Biodiversity - Types of Species/Extinction of Species/IUCN Red List
Types of Species

The species according to their role are divided as:

• Dominant species
These are species with substantially higher abundan More..

Climate Change - Basics of Climate Change
Basics of Climate Change

‘Climate change’ as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the More..

Biodiversity - Biodiversity Types/Functions of Biodiversity
Biodiversity Types

The word “biodiversity” is an abbreviated version of “biological diversity”.

The Convention on Biological Diversity d More..

Natural Resource Degradation - Solid Waste Management/E-waste Management/Treatment Methods for Waste Management
Solid Waste Management

India has emerged as the world’s fifth largest electronic waste (e-waste) producer. India discards roughly 18.5 lakh tonnes of e-waste each year and teleco More..

Biodiversity - Estuaries/Mangroves/Coral Polyps

Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water along coastlines where fresh water and salt water meet and mix. They act as a transition zone between oceans and contin More..

Brundtland Report & Capacity-Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) Fund
Brundtland Report
Formally called:  Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development
< More..

Environmental Governance - Steps for Environmental Conservation
Steps for Environmental Conservation

In This Section, we will discuss schemes related to Forestation, Schemes for wetland and coastal Ecosystem , schemes for water conservation More..

National Gas Grid
National Gas Grid

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and More..

Stubble burning
Stubble burning

Stubble burning refers to the use of a controlled fire to clear the crop residue that remains in the paddock after harvest and could more accurately be called ‘cro More..

Vermin Animals
Vermin are pests or nuisance animals that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock.

Disease-carrying rodents and insects are the usual case, but the term is also applied to larger animals—especially small predators—typically beca More..

Light Emitting Diodes

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. The output from an LED can range from red (at a wavelength of approximately 700 nanometers) to blue-violet (about 400 nanom More..

Martial Arts of India

Martial arts is a part of India’s ancient culture and a traditional games.Originally a traditional form of martial art that started in South India, and now it has different names and different forms in the culture of the regions in India More..

Indian Pottery

The art of handling of clay called Pottery was one of the earliest skills known to the Indians. From time immemorial, lumps of clay were hand -moulded to form toys and deities of worship. More..

Puppet Forms of India

The puppets are believed to be around since the time of Harappa and Mohenjodaro civilisation dating back to 2300 BC. Several dolls with strings are found in some of the harappan cities. More..

Indian Painting

The origin of Indian painting goes back to 8000 years and an account of its development is inextricably meshed with the development of Indian civilization.

Prehi More..

Treaties and Agreements
Treaties and Agreements

1971: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance ("Ramsar Convention")

1972: Stockholm Declaration

1973: Convention on International Trade in Endangered species More..

Agenda 21 & Basel Convention
Agenda 21
1. Non-binding
2. Voluntary

  • It is an action plan of United Nations
  • Related with sustainable development
  • It More..

Indian Polity Notes: Part 1: Making of Constitution
Making of Constituion

As a part of Indian Polity notes here, we will discuss the details of Mak More..

Indian Polity Notes: Part 2: Preamble, Union of India and Citizenship

The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution. It’s a kind of summary or essence of the Constitution.
The American Constitution More..

Indian Polity Notes Part 3: Fundamental Rights and Duties
Fundamental Rights under Indian Constitution

These rights are fundamental in the sense that any law passed by the legislature in the country would be declared as null and void if More..

Indian Polity Notes Part 4: Directive Principles of the State Policy
Directive Principles of the State Policy

1. They have been mentioned in Part-4 and cover articles from 36-51 of the Constitution of India.
2. Called as Novel Features of th More..

Indian Polity Notes Part 5: President of India
The President of India in the Indian Constitution

(1)Article 52 – There shall be a President of India
(2)Article 53 – Executive power of the Union: The executive power shal More..