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Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention to Combat Desertification, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
                                                                                                    March 18, 2018


Convention on Biological Diversity
 
Also known as Biodiversity Convention

  • It is a multilateral treaty
  • Opened for signature on 5 June 1992 in Rio De Janeiro
  • Entered into force in 1993
  • Signatories : 168
  • Parties : 196
  • It is legally binding

Convention has 3 main goals :
a. Conservation of biological diversity
b. Sustainable use of its components; and
c. Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources

India plays an active part in this treaty. India is a party to convention
USA has signed but not ratified.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety : 

Also known as biosafety protocol

  • Adopted in 2000;
  • Came into force in 2003
  • The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
  • Genetically Modified Organisms can be regulated under this protocol
Nagoya Protocol:
  • Adopted in Conference of Parties 10 (CoP10) (2010)
  •  It deals with access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity
  • It is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • The Strategic Plan consists of 20 new biodiversity targets for 2020, termed the 'Aichi Biodiversity Targets'
 
Convention to Combat Desertification
 
  • It is a UN convention
  • It is a convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa 
  • Opened for sign in 1994 in Paris
  • Became effective from 1995 (Canada withdrew. First to do so)
  • Parties : 196
  • HQ : Bonn, Germany
  • It is the only convention which stem out from direct recommendations of Rio Agenda 21
  • It is the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of desertification  

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) *
 
  • CMS is an international treaty concluded under aegis of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), concerned with conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale.
  •  It is commonly abbreviated as Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention.
  • CMS aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. 
  • It was signed in 1979 in Bonn (hence the name), Germany and entered into force in 1983.
  •  Its headquarters are in Bonn, Germany. 
  •  Since its entry into force, its membership has grown steadily to include over 120 Parties from Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania.
  • CMS is only global and UN-based intergovernmental organization established exclusively for conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.
 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) *  

  • Formally Called : Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
  • It is also known as Washington Convention
  • It is a multilateral Treaty
  •  Participation is voluntary
  • It is legally binding on the Parties, but it does not take the place of national laws.
  •  Opened for sign : 1973
  • Parties : 182
  • Aims to protect endangered plants and animals.
  •  Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. 

It classifies plants and animals according to three categories, or appendices, based on how threatened :
1. Appendix I: It lists species that are in danger of extinction. It prohibits commercial trade of these plants and animals except in extraordinary situations for scientific or educational reasons. 
2. Appendix II: They are those that are not threatened with extinction but that might suffer a serious decline in number if trade is not restricted. Their trade is regulated by permit. 
3. Appendix III: They are protected in at least one country that is a CITES member states and that has petitioned others for help in controlling international trade in that species. 

In addition CITES also restricts trade in items made from such plants and animals, such as food, clothing, medicine, and souvenirs.