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Indian Art & Culture - MISCELLANEOUS ART FORM
                                                                                                    October 26, 2017


MISCELLANEOUS ART FORM

1. ALPANA FOLK ART


Why in News?

INTACH (Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage) has joined hands with the Daricha Foundation to revive the lost fold art of Bengal – Alpana. 

What is Alpana?
  • Alpana is a folk art of Bengal was mainly done on the floor and the walls of the house.
  • The painting was done with hands (fingers are the brush) and the paint is mainly a paste comprising of rice flour. 
  • The motifs drawn are ritualistic images from mythology and scriptures. 
  • Alpana was drawn by women of the house before the sunset.
  • It is considered to ward off evil spirits and was specifically drawn on special occasions such as festivals or weddings. 

2. ADIVASI ADIVIMB

It is a three day festival of tribal dance music and theatre organized by national school of drama.

Various performances associated with different regions were performed such as 
o Ghumura - odisha
o Adi solung dancers - Arunachala Pradesh
o Mishing bihu and gumrag - Assam
o Hozagiri dancers - Tripura

3.  FRINGE FOLK ARTS

3.1. BEHEROOPIYA 
  • It was once a mode of entertainment for royals.
  • It is an art to entertain with alertness and wit, through impersonating someone, hazirjawabi.
  • This art is getting extinct. Only few people take it up and that too to use it for begging.

3.2. KACHCHHI GHORI DANCE
  • It is a folk dance with origin in shekhawati region of rajasthan
  • It is performed by men on dummy horses.
  • It is performed on a beat of drums and fifes
  • These artists of fringe folk arts above are also known as ‘Maidaani Kalaakar’ as they perform in the open without any need for a stage.

4. JANGAM JOGI

  • Jangam jogi are folk musicians associated with region of Haryana, Punjab.
  • Jangam is a style of devotional music dedicated to lord shiva.
  • Their instruments are small and portable (being travellers) like dafli, khanjari, khartal.
5. CHANNAPATNA WOODCRAFT
  • Channapatna is the heritage wooden craft of Karnataka.
  •  It is used to make toys. These toys are safe for children as they have no shard edegs and no lead colours (only organic colours).
  • It has attained GI status under WTO.
  • Channapatna also has India’s first craft part.

6. KAI SILAMBAM
  • It is a traditional folk art of Puducherry.
  • It is closely related to art of kalaripayattu of Kerala and angampora of Sri lanka.
  • Silambam refers to bamboo staff (main weapon used in this style).
  • It is also practiced in Malaysia today.

7. KOLKALI AND MARGRAM
  • Kolkali is a folk art performed in Kerela
  • It has been influenced by kalaripayattu
  • It has been revived by Syrian Christian communities of Kerela
  • Margam dance is also a folk dance from kerela

8. KATHISAMU AND KARASAMU
  • It is a martial art of Andhra Pradesh, having origin in Vijaynagar Empire.
  • Kathisamuu and karasamu are name of weapons used in it.
  • Various weapons used are
       o knife fighting (baku samu)
       o sword fighting (katti samu)
       o stick fighting (kara samu) 

9. SANGODD
  • It is a festival celebrated in Goa during monsoon season on 29thjune.
  • The sangodd celebrations begins in the afternoon only after priests give blessings to sangodd and areca poles that fishermen use and grand feast mass in morning
  • Sangodd is the tying together of 2 boats representing binding of faith.

10. ROGAN ART
  • Rogan is an art of painting on fabric, with its origin in Persia and popular in India in Kutch region
  •  In this art, organic colors such as vegetable pigments are used with castor oil base
  • The painting is done using a stick, a rod or a metal block. 
  • The most frequently used colours are yellow, blue and red.

11. STATUE OF LIBERTY
  • It is being constructed in Narmada district of Gujarat as a tribute to Sardar patel
  • It would be world’s tallest statue when completed.
  • The project is being executed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Rashtriya Ekta Trust (SVPRET), the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) formed by the Gujarat government.

12. KANISHKA STUPA
 
Why in news?

Pakistan government is urging to include Kanishka  stupa, in Peshawar, as 8th wonder of the world

About Kanishka Stupa
  • It was established by Kushana king Kaishka in 2nd century AD.
  • It would be perhaps tallest building of ancient history.
  • Its Buddhist relics were transferred to Mandalay hill, Burma.
 
13. KUTIYATTAM
  • Kutiyattam is a form of theatre that originated in ancient India, dating back to about two millennia. It draws on the on the plays of the eminent Sanskrit dramatists of India.
  • It has been declared as “Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” by UNESCO.
  • Kutiyattam is a performed by a community of male actors called Chakyars and female performers called Nangiars, assisted by drummers called Nambiars, in theatre houses called Kuttampalams.
  • Kutiyattam represents a synthesis of Sanskrit classicism and reflects the local traditions of Kerala.
  • Actors undergo ten to fifteen years of rigorous training to become fully-fledged performers with sophisticated breathing control and subtle muscle shifts of the face and body.

14. BAZIGAR (ACROBATS OF PUNJAB)
  • They are a community among the Scheduled Castes of Punjab.
  •  Originally nomads, they trace their origin to the Rajputs of Rajasthan and started to settle in the North West India in last 3 centuries.
  • Their main profession was making Bazis (jumps and somersaults), but now they are also into casual labour.
  • The economic condition is poor as the traditional profession is not sustainable.

15. KALARIPAYATTU (MARTIAL ARTS FROM KERALA)
  • Kalarippayattu is the indigenous martial art of Kerala and is known to be in practice for more than five hundred years.
  • It has been preserved for many centuries following the tradition of guru-sisya parampara.
  • It has three regional variants that are distinguished by their attacking and defensive patterns.
  • Kalaripayattu techniques are a combination of steps (Chuvatu) and postures (Vadivu). 
  • A kalari in Tamil and Malayalam means the school or training hall where martial arts are taught. 
16. BAHURUPIYA (MIMICRY ARTISTS FROM RAJASTHAN)
  • The term bahurupiya derives from the Sanskrit bahu (many) and rupa (form).
  • The practice of performing as a bahurupiya is now associated with Bhands, but formerly members of various castes, including Brahmans, practiced this art in villages as well as courts.
  • Central to the art of the bahurupiya is the ability to create convincing impersonations of identifiable types.
  •  A bahurupiya’s disguise is known as a vesh (Sanskrit for clothing or dress).

17. THANG TA (MARTIAL ART FORM OF MANIPUR)
  • The Meitis of Manipur practised a distinct martial technique called thang-ta, in which a Thang (spear) and a Ta (sword) are the primary weapons.
  • It is a way of life. The exercises, movements and the fighting methods are meant to instill discipline, boost self-confidence, safeguard women, respect elders or fight for the kingdom.
  • There are weapons like ‘arambai’ (a pointed small spear with traditional poison filled at the tip), ‘thang’ and ‘chungoi’ and many others which add power to Thang-ta. 

18. MALLAKHAMB (MAHARASHTRA)
  •  Mallakhamb as the name suggests is a pole used by wrestlers for practicing their skills in the game KUSTI. 
  • But now days the trend has changed and it has got a special identity. Mallakhamb needs concentration, speed and flexibility.It is a good exercise to our body especially for backbone.
  • Earliest mention of Mallkhamb can be traced back to the 12th Century.
  • There are three ways in which mallakhamb may be performed – on a fixed pole, hanging pole or rope. Three decades ago, pole mallakhamb gave way to the rope mallakhamb.
 
19. NADA KUSTI

It is a traditional form of wrestling, deep rooted in the people of Mysore.

A sport that has had royal patronage since early 17th Century, Nada Kusti is very popular among those from the lower middle class and rural areas.

Today, the sport is no more than a form of rural entertainment confined to the Dasara festivities.

20. PHULKARI
  • The origin of this art can be traced back to the 15th century AD.
  •  In it embroidery is done in a simple and sparse design over shawls and dupattas.
  •  In some cases where the design is worked over very closely, covering the material entirely, it is called bagh (a garden of flowers).
  • The threads used were of a silk yarn called pat.

21. ZARDOZI
  • Zardozi is metal embroidery, which was used for the attire of royals. Persian terms Zar meaning gold and Dozi meaning embroidery.
  • It involves making elaborate designs, using gold and silver threads. Precious stones, diamonds, emeralds, and pearls are also used.
  • Uses: to adorn walls of the royal tents, scabbards, wall hangings and the paraphernalia of regal elephants and horses.
  • Zardozi embroidery work is mainly a specialty of Lucknow, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Delhi, Agra, Kashmir, Mumbai, Ajmer and Chennai.
  • In 2013 the Geographical Indication Registry (GIR) accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) registration to the Lucknow Zardozi, which is manufactured in areas in Lucknow and six surrounding districts of Barabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Amethi.

22. CHETTINAD COTTON SARIS
  • Chettinadu saree was derived from Chettinadu, a small town in Sivaganga district of Tamil Nadu.
  • The traditional sari from Chettinad is called Kandanghi and is made of cotton.
  •  The Chettinadu sarees are designed by incorporating checks of vivid colours - mustard, brick red, oranges, chromes and brown. 
  • Checks and Temple borders are the traditional patterns of Kandanghi saree.

23. TANGALIA WEAVING
  • Tangalia weaving is a 700-year-old indigenous craft which uses a unique weaving technique comprising themes made up of 'danas' or beads ranging from a few dots to a more elaborate arrangement by using cotton or wool yarn. 
  • It is only practiced by the Dangasia community in Surendranagar district of Gujarat.
  • Tangalia textiles are usually worn as a shawl and wraparound skirt by the women of the Bharwadshepherd community. 
  • Tangalia shawl was given Geographical Indications recognition by the Central government in 2009.

Dangasia community
  • The word Dangasia has been derived from the word Dang, meaning stick in the vernacular language, signifying the stick used by shepherds to herd their sheep.
  • The Dangasias follow Hinduism. They are believers in Chamunda Devi, a form of the goddess Parvati and celebrate Navratri.
  • They celebrate all major Hindu festivals like Holi, Diwali, Uttarayan and Janmashtami besides actively participating in other local festivals and fairs.
  •  They share a symbiotic relation with the Bharwads, where the latter provides wool and the former wove garments for them.
24. BIDRI CRAFT
  • It is a metal handicraft from Bidar district of Karnataka. 
  • The craft originated in Persia and came to India in the 14th century. It flourished under the Bahamani dynasty.
  •  In Bidri work, zinc is the primary metal used. 
  • Bidriware is characterised by its black shine which comes from the special soil used. This is black soil found in Bidri.

25. THEWA CRAFT
  • Thewa is a unique art of jewellery making which involves embossing of intricately worked-out sheet of gold. 
  • It originated about 400 years ago in the Pratapgarh district of Rajasthan.
  • The word Thewa comes from two words: Tharna meaning hammer and Vada meaning silver wire. 
  • Its origin is attributed to the goldsmith Nathuji Soni who was conferred the title of Rajasoni by Raja Savant Singh of Pratapgarh. 
  • The title and the craft have been passed down through generations.
26. JOGI TRIBAL ART
  • Jogi Art is tribal art form that hinges on lines and dots. 
  • It is mostly done in black and whites; however the recent installation in the city of Jaipur is of vibrant colours.
  • It is practised by artists from Magriwada in Reodar tehsil of Sirohi district in Rajasthan.
  • Interestingly, now this tribal art form is just practised by a nuclear family
  • The Rajasthan government has installed Jogi Tribal Art Paintings across Jaipur in an attempt to make people aware and to keep the traditional art alive.  

27. KABADDI WORLD CUP

Why in News?

India beat Iran in the finals of Kabaddi World Cup 2016 to win the third consecutive title.

Kabaddi
  • Kabaddi is a contact sport that originated in ancient india. 
  • It is known as sadugudu in Tamil Nadu, Kabaddi in Karnataka, Hadudu in Bengal, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi in Punjab region and chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh.
  • There are mainly four forms of Kabaddi played in India: Sanjeevani Kabaddi, Gaminee style, Amar style and Punjabi Kabaddi. 
  • The Kabaddi Federation of India was founded in 1950.
  • The sport received international exposure during 1936 Berlin Olympics.